The Church of Saint Nicolas is one the most beautiful Baroque churches and it was built according to the design by Kilián Ignác Dienzenhofer in the early 18th century, instead of the original gothic church, which served as the parish church of the Old Town. In connection with re-catholicization of Bohemia, the Benedictines gained the parish. The church was dedicated to St. Nicholas, the protector of merchants and sailors, and perhaps he also protected the councillors. The Benedictines maintained the church until the order was declared unnecessary and it was cancelled by Josef II. After that the church served as a grain storage, archive, and concert hall and also to the military, it was returned to the Church in 1871. Because the church belonged to the Orthodox Church in this time. The main glass chandelier in the shape of the tsarist crown was given to the church as a gift from the Tsar Nicholas II. The chandelier weighs 1 400 kg and it was made by glassmakers from Harrachov in 1880. After WWI the church was given to the Czechoslovak Hussite Church.
A special feature of the church is that the side entrance to the church looks like the main entrance and it also serves that purpose. It is because the main entrance opened into the Jewish Town, while the side entrance opened out onto the more important Old Town Square. In addition, the destruction of the modern wing of the City Hall provided a space for a clearer presentation of the church. The memorial plaque that states that it is the birth house of Franz Kafka is next to the main entrance.