The entry into the second courtyard is through the Mathias Gate and the passage in the Teresian Wing of the Castle. The entrance to the representative halls of the Castle is on the right side of the passage and on the left side, there is entrance to the Spanish Hall. Another way into the Second Courtyard is from the north, through the Powder Tower, and it is the second main entrance into the castle complex.
Significant construction activity in the area of the castle was done during the reign of Rudolf II. He, among others, had a unique Renaissance horse stables with the capacity to accommodate more than two-hundred horses, which was built into the northern part of the Castle. Above the stables two exhibition halls were established, the Renaissance Spanish Hall and Rudolf’s Gallery. Today, it houses the Picture Gallery of the Prague Castle. The southern part of the courtyard consisted of a representative residential wing and this was where Rudolph's famous art collections were gathered. Today’s look of the courtyard is similar to the Castle, Teresian - Classical Baroque. The Chapel of the Holy Cross, which was built before the Teresian reconstruction, is located in the courtyard. In the middle of the courtyard stands the great Kohl’s Fountain, which is sometimes called the Leopold’s or Lion´s. The Flag of the President of the Czech Republic flutters above the roof of the southwest part of the courtyard.