The Pinkas Synagogue is the second oldest Prague synagogue. It was ordered by Aron Horowitz and it was built to be his family’s private chapel, right next to the Old Jewish Cemetery in 1535. Later on, it became a public synagogue with a sacred ritual bath, Mikveh. The synagogue is named after the Rabbi Pinkas of Krakow, who was a relative of Aron Horowitz. In historic sources, the synagogue is also referred to as the Pinkas School.
The Pinkas Synagogue is a popular memorial place. There is a memorial to the victims of Nazi persecution, which bears the distinctive name of the Monument of 77 297. The walls of the synagogue are covered with 77,297 names of Czech and Moravian Jews, who perished in the years 1939-1945 in the Nazi concentration camps. The members of the Jewish families that were killed at different times, and in the various concentration camps, are at least symbolically back together on the walls of the synagogue. Information about the victims are in the following order: last address, surname, first name, date of birth and date of death or date of the last report, about the victim, which is usually information about the date of transportation to the camp. The walls covered with names are very emotional. The same emotions are raised by four and half thousand drawings by children that were forced to live in the Terezin ghetto in the years 1942 – 1944. This ghetto was a gathering place for the Czech and Moravian Jews, before their final transport to the concentrations camps.