It is the largest of the four castle courtyards and it is also the oldest place of the Czech State. It is the probable place of the pagan sacred hill called Žiži. The importance of the place grew after Prince Václav had the Romanesque Rotunda of St. Vitus built here in the 12th century. Ruled by Přemyslovi, the centre of Bohemia was formed here.
The dominant feature of the courtyard is the Cathedral of St. Vitus, St. Václav, and St. Vojtěch. The Obelisk was built on the tenth anniversary of the republic and as a memoriam for the victims of WWI and it is located on the south side of the Cathedral. There is also the building of the old Provost and the statue of St. George with fountain and a shed covering the archaeological founding below the cathedral. The courtyard was newly paved in the 1920s and it covered all of the remains of the previous buildings. On the east side stands the Gothic Old Royal Palace from the time of the Jagellons. The west and south sides consists of the Presidential Palace, which dates back to the time of Pacassi´s reconstruction of the castle. Pacassi basically hid the old diverse buildings from the previous periods under the new façade and created a united appearance of the castle.